- For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation).
16th President of the United States
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
||Hannibal Hamlin (1861 to 1865); Andrew Johnson abrahamlincoln (March - April 1865)
||February 12, 1809
Hardin County, abreham lincoln Kentucky
||April 15, 1865
||Mary Todd Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, abraham licoln 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American politician who was elected the 16th President of the United States abrham lincoln (serving from 1861 abraham loncoln to 1865), and was the first president from the Republican Party. Today, he araham lincoln is best known for ending slavery and preserving the Union through his supervision abraham lincolm of the Federal (i.e., Northern) forces during the American Civil War. He selected the generals and approved their strategy; abraham lincaln selected senior civilian officials; supervised diplomacy, patronage, and party abrahm lincoln operations; and rallied public opinion through messages and speeches. Lincoln's influence was adraham lincoln magnified by his powerful rhetoric; his Gettysburg Address rededicated the nation to freedom and abraham linoln democracy and remains a core component of the American value system.
- 1 Major abraham limcoln achievements
- 2 Lincoln 1809 to 1854
- 2.1 Early life
- 2.2 Early abaham lincoln career
- 2.3 Family
- 2.4 Antiwar abraha lincoln activist
- 2.5 Prairie lawyer
- 3 Republican abraham lincol politics 1854–1860
- 4 Civil War
- 4.1 Secession abraham linciln winter 1860–1861
- 4.2 Fighting begins: 1861–1862
- 4.3 Emancipation Proclamation
- 4.4 Domestic abraham lncoln measures
- 4.5 1864 election and second abraham lincln inauguration
- 4.6 Conducting the war abraham luncoln effort
- 4.7 Homefront
- 4.8 Rhetoric mobilizes the nation
- 4.9 Civil abrahaam lincoln liberties suspended
- 4.10 Reconstruction
- 4.11 Assassination
- 5 Presidential abraham liincoln appointments
- 5.1 Administration and Cabinet
- 5.2 Supreme Court
- 6 Major presidential acts
- 6.1 Signed apraham lincoln as President
- 6.2 States admitted to braham lincoln the Union
- 7 Legacy and memorials
- 8 See abraham linncoln also
- 9 Notes
- 10 Bibliography
- 10.1 Biographies
- 10.2 Specialty abraham llincoln abrahham lincoln topics
- 10.3 Lincoln in art and popular culture
- 10.4 Primary sources
- 11 External links
- 11.1 Project aberham lincoln Gutenberg eTexts
To achieve his main goal of preserving the abarham lincoln Union, Lincoln first ended slavery in the Confederacy through his Emancipation Proclamation (1863), then abraham linclon in 1865 secured passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. abraham lincolin Constitution to abolish slavery forever. He abraham lincoin took personal charge of Reconstruction, seeking to speedily re-unite the nation through a abraham licon policy of generous reconciliation. He was opposed by the Radical Republicans, abraham lincoln who advocated much harsher policies.
His leadership qualities were evident in his bringing all factions of the party into his cabinet, in defusing a war scare president abraham lincoln with Britain in abraham lincoln quotes 1861, in handling the border slave states in 1861, and in uss abraham lincoln his landslide reelection in the 1864 presidential election. Copperheads criticized him vehemently for refusing to compromise on slavery, declaring martial law, suspending the writ of assassination of abraham lincoln habeas corpus, ordering arrests of 18,000 opponents including public officials pictures of abraham lincoln and newspaper publishers, needlessly ending the lives abraham lincoln portraits of hundreds of thousands of young soldiers in the war, facts about abraham lincoln and for overstepping the bounds of executive power as set forth in the Constitution. On the other hand, Radical Republicans criticized him for moving abraham lincoln assassination too slowly in abolishing slavery, and not being ruthless enough toward the abraham lincoln brigade conquered South.
Lincoln had a lasting influence on U.S. political values, redefining republican values, promoting nationalism, abraham lincoln pictures and enlarging the powers of abraham lincoln timeline the federal government. Scholars rank Lincoln as one of the two abraham lincoln collectables or three greatest presidents. His assassination in 1865 as the war ended made him a martyr abraham lincoln life for national unity and an icon of Americanism.
Lincoln presidency of abraham lincoln 1809 to 1854
Symbolic log cabin at Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site
Abraham Lincoln abraham lincoln museum was born on February 12, 1809, to Thomas Lincoln and abraham lincoln coin Nancy Hanks. He was born in a abraham lincoln voice recording one-room log cabin on the 348 acre (1.4 km²) Sinking Spring Farm. The farm was in Nolin Creek, three miles (5 km) south of timeline for abraham lincoln Hodgenville, Kentucky. This was the southeast peterson house abraham lincoln part of Hardin County (now part of LaRue County), and was at that time considered the "frontier". Lincoln was named biography of abraham lincoln after his grandfather, who was killed in picture of abraham lincoln 1786 in an Indian raid. He abraham lincoln political humor cartoons had no middle name. Lincoln's parents were uneducated farmers. Lincoln had abraham lincoln gettysburg address one elder sister, Sarah Lincoln, who was born in 1805. He also had a abraham lincoln presidential library younger brother, Thomas Jr, who died in infancy. Thomas Lincoln for a while was a respected and relatively abraham lincoln assassinated affluent citizen of the Kentucky backcountry. He had purchased the Sinking Spring Farm in December 1808 for $200 abraham lincoln speeches cash and assumption of a debt. But Thomas lost all his property in abraham lincoln biography court cases abraham lincoln raiding of english ships and when Lincoln was a child the family was living in abraham lincoln famous speech a dugout on the side of a hill in Indiana, with not even a log images of abraham lincoln cabin to shelter them. His parents belonged to a Baptist church that had pulled away abraham lincoln assasination from a larger church because they refused to support abraham lincoln exhumed slavery. From a very young age, Lincoln was exposed to anti-slavery sentiment. However, he never joined his parents' church, abraham lincoln quote or any other church, and as a youth he ridiculed religion.
In 1816, when abraham lincoln step family Lincoln was seven years old, he and pictures of president abraham lincoln his parents moved to Perry County (now in Spencer County), Indiana. He later noted that abraham lincoln birthplace this move was "partly on account of slavery," and partly because of economic difficulties in Kentucky. In 1818, Lincoln's mother died of abraham lincoln high school "milk sickness" at abraham lincoln lithograph age thirty four, when Abe was nine. Soon afterwards, Lincoln's father remarried to abraham lincoln photos Sarah Bush Johnston. Sarah Lincoln raised young Lincoln like one of her own children. Years later she compared Lincoln to interesting facts about abraham lincoln her own son, saying "Both abraham lincoln ancestry were good boys, but I must say — both now being dead that Abe was the best boy I abraham lincoln civil war ever saw or ever expect to see." Lincoln was affectionate toward his step-mother, but distant from his father.
In 1830, after more economic and land-title abraham lincoln university difficulties in Indiana, the family settled on government land on a site selected by success of abraham lincoln Lincoln's father in Macon County, Illinois. The following desolate winter was especially brutal, and the abraham ford lincoln theater family nearly moved back to krone abraham lincoln pen Indiana. When his father relocated the family to a nearby site the following year, the 22-year-old Lincoln struck out on his own, manuscripts of abraham lincoln canoeing down the Sangamon River to Sangamon County, Illinois, in the village pictures of abraham lincoln at the fords theater of New Salem. Later that year, hired by New Salem businessman abraham lincoln born Denton Offutt and accompanied by friends, he took goods from New Salem to New Orleans via abraham lincoln national historic site flatboat on the Sangamon, Illinois howard zinn on abraham lincoln and Mississippi rivers. While in New Orleans, he may have witnessed a slave auction that left an indelible impression on him paintings of abraham lincoln for the rest of his life. Whether he actually witnessed a slave auction president abraham lincoln hotel at that time or not, he visited when did abraham lincoln die Kentucky often and probably saw similar sales from time to time.
His formal education consisted of perhaps 18 months of schooling from unofficial teachers. In effect he was abraham lincoln batallion self-educated, studying every book he could borrow. He mastered abraham lincoln facts the Bible, William Shakespeare's works, English history and American history, and developed a plain abraham lincoln law school style that puzzled audiences more used to grandiloquent oratory. He was a local wrestler and skilled with abraham lincoln library and museum an axe; some rails he had allegedly split in his abraham lincoln memorial youth were exhibited at the 1860 Republican National Convention, as the party celebrated the poor-boy-made-good theme. He abraham lincoln presidential museum avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like killing animals even abraham lincoln speech for food and, though unusually tall and strong, spent so much time reading that some neighbors george bush, george washington, abraham lincoln praying thought he must quotes by abraham lincoln be doing it to avoid strenuous manual labor.
Lincoln began what town was abraham lincoln assianated in his political career in 1832, abraham lincoln and john f. kennedy at age 23, with a campaign for the Illinois General Assembly as a member of the Whig Party. The centerpiece of his platform was the abraham lincoln during the civil war undertaking of navigational improvements on the Sangamon River in the hopes abraham lincoln family tree of attracting steamboat traffic abraham lincoln in the civil war to the river, which would allow sparsely populated, poor areas along and near the river to grow and prosper. abraham lincoln trivia He served as a captain in a company of the Illinois militia drawn from New Salem abraham lincolns mother during the Black Hawk War, although he never saw combat. He fort abraham lincoln wrote after being elected by his peers that he had history of abraham lincoln not had "any such success in life which gave him so how tall was abraham lincoln much satisfaction."
For a few months he operated a small lincoln abraham store in New Salem, Illinois, selling tea, coffee, sugar, salt, blue calico, abraham lincoln 5 foreign policy brown muslin, straw hats--and whiskey. After coming across the second volume of Sir William Blackstone's abraham lincoln and discrimination four-volume Commentaries on the Laws of England, he taught himself law and was admitted to the bar in 1837. That same abraham lincoln and slavery year, he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice law abraham lincoln and the civil war with Stephen T. Logan. He became one of the most respected and successful lawyers in abraham lincoln emancipation proclamation Illinois and grew steadily more prosperous. Lincoln served four abraham lincoln foreign policy successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives, as a Whig representative from Sangamon County, beginning in 1834. abraham lincoln letter duty general He became a leader of the Whig party abraham lincoln memorial library in the legislature. In 1837, he made his first protest abraham lincoln national cemetary against slavery in the Illinois House, stating that the institution was abraham lincoln national cemetery "founded on both injustice and bad policy".
It was in 1837, that Lincoln met his most intimate friend, Joshua abraham lincoln president Fry Speed, with whom he shared a bed for the next four years, a common abraham lincoln quotations practice on the frontier at the time achievements of abraham lincoln (Donald). "...it is hardly too much to say assasination of abraham lincoln that he was the only — as he was certainly the last — intimate friend that Lincoln ever had."(Nicolay informatoin on abraham lincoln and Hay) When Speed married in February, 1842, Lincoln wrote from Springfield: "I feel somewhat jealous of both picture of uss abraham lincoln of you now; you will be so exclusively concerned for one revisionist theory of abraham lincoln assassination another, that I shall who killed abraham lincoln be forgotten entirely."(Lincoln collected works, Basler(ed))
In 1842, Lincoln wrote a series of anonymous letters which were published in the Sangamo Journal, mocking abraham lincoln bio prominent Democrat and State Auditor James Shields. When Shields found out it was Lincoln, abraham lincoln coin proclaimed the first thanksgiving day he challenged him to a duel. Since Shields was the challenger, Lincoln abraham lincoln funeral chose the weapon and specified "Cavalry broad swords of the largest size." Lincoln, abraham lincoln height much taller with long arms, had an overwhelming advantage; the duel was called abraham lincoln hotel springfield il off at the last minute.
In 1841, Lincoln entered abraham lincoln killed law practice with William Herndon, a fellow Whig. In 1856, both men joined the fledgling Republican Party. Following abraham lincoln library Lincoln's death, Herndon began abraham lincoln oyster plate collecting stories about Lincoln from those who knew him in central Illinois, and published abraham lincoln patent idea them in Herndon's Lincoln.
On November 4, 1842, at the age of 33, Lincoln married abraham lincoln photo Mary Todd. She came from a prominent slave-owning family from Kentucky and allowed his children abraham lincoln political to spend time in Kentucky surrounded by slaves. The couple had four abraham lincoln portrait sons.
- Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 - July 26, 1926): born in Springfield, Illinois, abraham lincolns assassination and died in Manchester, Vermont.
- Edward Baker Lincoln (March 10, 1846 - February 1, 1850): abraham lincolns presidency firsts born and died in Springfield.
- William Wallace Lincoln (December 21, 1850 - February 20, 1862): born in krone abraham lincoln pen price Springfield and died in Washington, D.C.
- Thomas "Tad" president abraham lincoln hotel, springfield, il Lincoln (April 4, 1853 - July 16, 1871): born in Springfield and abraham lincoln + mexican-american war died in Chicago.
Only Robert survived into adulthood. Lincoln greatly admired the science that flourished in New England and was abraham lincoln after civil war one of the abraham lincoln as a communicator few men in Illinois at the time to send a son to elite eastern schools; he sent abraham lincoln assination Robert Todd Lincoln to Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard College. Robert had three abraham lincoln costume children and three grandchildren, but none of these had children, so Abraham Lincoln's bloodline abraham lincoln descendents ended when Robert Beckwith (Lincoln's great-grandson) died on December 24, 1985.
Among his wife's abraham lincoln history: death memorial ornament family, four of his brothers-in-law fought for abraham lincoln inauguration the Confederacy with one wounded and another killed in action. Lieutenant David H. Todd, a half-brother abraham lincoln j.h. barrett of Mary Todd Lincoln, served as commandant of the abraham lincoln letters Libby Prison camp during the war.
The sexuality of Abraham Lincoln is a topic of some abraham lincoln memorial society dispute. It has been argued that he may have been bisexual, or fundamentally homosexual.
- For more information on this topic, see Sexuality of abraham lincoln president ancestry heritige Abraham abraham lincoln shot Lincoln.
In 1846, abraham lincoln standing Lincoln was elected to a term in the U.S. House of Representatives. abraham lincoln statue A staunch Whig, Lincoln often referred to party leader Henry Clay as his political idol. As a freshman House member, Lincoln was not abraham lincoln with hat a particularly powerful or influential figure in Congress. He spoke out against the Mexican-American War, abraham lincolns gettysburg address which he attributed to President Polk's desire for "military glory — that abraham lincolns letters writings attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood". Besides assassination of president abraham lincoln this rhetoric, he also directly challenged Polk's claims as to the boundary of Texas. Lincoln was among the 82 Whigs in autographs of abraham lincoln January 1848 who defeated 81 Democrats in a procedural vote on an amendment to document autograph abraham lincoln send a routine resolution back to committee with instructions for the committee to add the words "a war unnecessarily famous pictures of abraham lincoln and unconstitutionally begun by the President of the United States". how did abraham lincoln change america The amendment passed, but the bill never reemerged from committee and was never finally voted upon. Lincoln damaged his reputation by an letters of abraham lincoln intemperate speech in the House. He announced, "God of letters written by abraham lincoln Heaven has forgotten to defend the weak and innocent, and permitted the strong band of murderers and malaria and abraham lincoln demons from hell to kill men, women, and portrait of president abraham lincoln children, and lay waste and pillage the land of the just." Two qualities abraham lincoln weeks later, Polk sent a peace treaty to Congress. No one in Washington paid any attention to Lincoln, but the Democrats orchestrated angry outbursts from all signed photos of abraham lincoln over his district, where the war was timeline of abraham lincolns life popular and many had volunteered. In Morgan County, resolutions were adopted in fervent support of the war what is the real date of the assasination of abraham lincoln and in abraham lincoln + assasination wrathful denunciation of the "treasonable assaults of guerrillas at home; party demagogues;" slanderers of the President, defenders of the butchery at the Alamo, traducers of abraham lincoln and fido the heroism at San abraham lincoln and the brooklyn bridge Jacinto. Lincoln's law partner William Herndon warned Lincoln that the damage was mounting and irreparable; Lincoln himself abraham lincoln birth place was despondent, and he decided not to run for reelection. In the fall abraham lincoln books 1848 election, he campaigned vigorously for Zachary Taylor, the successful general abraham lincoln cartoon whose atrocities he had denounced in January. Lincoln's attacks on Polk and Taylor came back to haunt him during the abraham lincoln childhood Civil War and indeed was held against him when he abraham lincoln commander in chief applied for a major patronage job from the new Taylor administration. Instead Taylor abraham lincoln death offered Lincoln a minor patronage job in remote Oregon Territory. Acceptance would end his abraham lincoln early life career in the fast-growing state of Illinois, so he declined. Returning instead abraham lincoln elected president to Springfield, Lincoln gave up politics and turned his energies to making a living abraham lincoln fabric as an attorney, which involved grueling travels on horseback from county courthouse to county abraham lincoln high school philadelphia courthouse.
By the mid-1850s, Lincoln abraham lincoln history faced competing transportation interests — both the river barges and the railroads. In 1849, he abraham lincoln hotel received a patent related to buoying vessels. Lincoln represented the Alton & Sangamon abraham lincoln movies Railroad in an 1851 dispute with one of its shareholders, James A. Barret. Barret had refused to pay abraham lincoln museam the balance on abraham lincoln paper weight his pledge to the railroad on the grounds that it had changed its originally planned route. Lincoln argued that as a matter abraham lincoln school of law of law a corporation is not abraham lincoln southern indiana bound by its original charter when that charter can abraham lincoln the president be amended in the public interest, that the newer proposed Alton & Sangamon route was superior and less abraham lincoln university school of law expensive, and that accordingly the corporation had a right to abraham lincoln was elected to congress in 1846. sue Mr. Barret for his delinquent payment. He won this case, and the decision by the Illinois abraham lincoln white Supreme Court was eventually cited by several other courts throughout the United States.
An important example of Lincoln's skills as a railroad lawyer was a lawsuit over a abraham lincolns tax exemption that the state had granted to the Illinois Central Railroad. abraham lincolns childhood McLean County argued that the state had no authority to grant such an abraham lincolns parents exemption, and it sought to impose taxes on the railroad notwithstanding. In January 1856, baby abraham lincoln the Illinois Supreme Court delivered cartoon abraham lincoln its opinion upholding the tax exemption.
Lincoln's most notable criminal trial came in 1858 when he defended William "Duff" cartoon pictures of abraham lincoln Armstrong, who was on trial for murder. The case is famous for Lincoln's use of judicial civility abraham lincoln notice, a rare tactic descendants of abraham lincoln at that time, to show that an eyewitness had lied on the stand. After the witness testified to having seen the crime facts on abraham lincoln by the light of the moon, Lincoln fort abraham lincoln state park produced a Farmer's Almanac to show that the moon on that date was at such a low angle how abraham lincoln communicated free resources that it could not have provided how old was abraham lincoln enough illumination to see anything clearly. Based upon this evidence, Armstrong was acquitted.
Lincoln was idaho abraham lincoln bicentennial commission involved in more than 5,100 cases in Illinois alone during a 23-year legal practice. laws of abraham lincoln Amounting to about one case per business day, many cases involved little more than filing a writ, while others were major accomplishments of abraham lincoln more substantial and drawn-out. Lincoln and his partners appeared before the Illinois State Supreme Court newspaper on abraham lincoln power point presentation on abraham lincoln more than 400 times.
Republican politics 1854–1860
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which expressly repealed the limits on slavery's spread that had powerpoint presintation on abraham lincoln been part of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, drew Lincoln back into politics. Illinois Democrat president bush on uss abraham lincoln Stephen A. Douglas, the most powerful man in the president bush uss abraham lincoln Senate, proposed popular sovereignty as the solution to the quotes of abraham lincoln slavery impasse, and he incorporated it into the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Douglas argued that in a succes of abraham lincoln democracy the people of a territory should decide whether to allow slavery and not the bibliography of abraham lincoln have a decision imposed on them by Congress.
It was a speech against theories of the assassination of abraham lincoln the act, on October 16, 1854, in Peoria, that caused thunder abraham lincoln Lincoln to stand out among the other free soil orators of the day. In the speech, Lincoln commented upon the Kansas-Nebraska timeline of abraham lincoln Act:
[The Act has a] declared indifference, but as I must think, covert what is the exact date of abraham lincoln assasination real zeal for the what kind of leader was abraham lincoln spread of slavery, I cannot but hate. I hate it because of the monstrous what where some quote's that abraham lincoln said injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just when was abraham lincoln born influence in the world—enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to taunt us as hypocrites—causes the real friends of where was abraham lincoln born freedom to doubt our sincerity, and especially because it forces so many a speech from abraham lincoln really good men amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles of civil abraham and lincoln and first inaugural address liberty—criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and insisting abraham lincoln + timeline that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.
He helped form the abraham lincoln - photo new Republican Party, drawing on remnants abraham lincoln 1861 coin of the old Whig, Free Soil, Liberty and Democratic parties. In abraham lincoln agenst slavery a stirring campaign, the Republicans carried Illinois in 1854 abraham lincoln and jacob abbott and elected a senator. Lincoln was the obvious choice, but to keep the new party balanced abraham lincoln and genealogy heritage he allowed the election to go to an ex-Democrat Lyman Trumbull.
In 1857-58, Douglas broke with President Buchanan, leading abraham lincoln and noah king to a fight for control of the Democratic Party. Some eastern Republicans even favored abraham lincoln and what he did the reelection of Douglas in 1858, since he led abraham lincoln assasinated the opposition to the administration's push for the Lecompton Constitution which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state. abraham lincoln cast iron tombstone Accepting the abraham lincoln commercial Republican nomination for the Senate in 1858, Lincoln delivered a famous speech in which he stated, abraham lincoln cultural beliefs "'A house divided against itself cannot stand.'(Mark 3:25) I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I abraham lincoln die do not abraham lincoln drawing expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to abraham lincoln elementary be divided. It will become all one thing, or all abraham lincoln favriot quotes from him self the other." The speech created a lasting image of the abraham lincoln for children danger of disunion because of slavery, abraham lincoln funeral hearse and rallied Republicans across the north.
The 1858 campaign featured the Lincoln-Douglas debates, a nationally famous contest on slavery. Lincoln warned that the Slave Power was abraham lincoln grave threatening the values of republicanism, while Douglas emphasized democracy, as in his Freeport Doctrine, abraham lincoln house which said that local settlers should abraham lincoln information be free to choose slavery or not. Though abraham lincoln logic the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature reelected Douglas to the Senate. Nevertheless, abraham lincoln manga Lincoln's eloquence transformed abraham lincoln photo gettsburg address him into a national political star.
During the debates of 1858, the issue of race was often discussed. During a time period when racial egalitarianism abraham lincoln picture was considered politically incorrect, Stephen Douglas informed the crowds, "If you desire Negro abraham lincoln presidebnt citizenship… if you abraham lincoln time line desire them to vote on an equality with yourselves… then support Mr. Lincoln abraham lincoln veterans cemetary and the Black Republican party, who are in favor of the citizenship of the negro." On the defensive, abraham lincoln vice president Lincoln countered that he was "not in favor of bringing about in any way the social and abraham lincoln wallpaper political equality abraham lincolns assasination of the white and black races." Lincoln's opposition to slavery was opposition abraham lincolns life to the Slave Power, and he was not an abolitionist in 1858. But the Civil War changed many things, including Lincoln's beliefs abraham lincolns proclamation speech in race relations.
Election of 1860
"The Rail Candidate", Lincoln's 1860 candidacy is asaph hall and abraham lincoln held up by slavery issue (slave on left) and party organization (New York Tribune
editor Horace Greeley on right)
Entering the comparison-contrast abraham lincoln to george bush presidential nomination process as a distinct underdog, Lincoln was eventually chosen david grossman's norman rockwell abraham lincoln figurine as the Republican death of abraham lincoln candidate for the 1860 election for several reasons. His expressed views on slavery were seen as more moderate than the documents written by abraham lincoln views of rivals William H. Seward and Salmon documents written of abraham lincoln Chase. His "western" origins also appealed to the newer states. Other contenders, especially those with more governmental experience, had acquired enemies within early life of abraham lincoln the party and were weak in the critical western ehlers danlos syndrome and abraham lincoln states. Lincoln was seen as a moderate who could win the West. famous quotes abraham lincoln Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party as the Slave Power ford theater dc abraham lincoln tightened its grasp on the national government. Despite his Southern connections (his funny pictures of abraham lincoln in-laws owned slaves), Lincoln misunderstood the depth of how abraham lincoln described himself the revolution underway in the South and the emergence of Southern nationalism. Throughout information on abraham lincoln the 1850s he denied there would ever be a civil war. His life of abraham lincoln supporters repeatedly denied that his election would be a spark for secession.
Lincoln did man of failure abraham lincoln not campaign or give speeches. The campaign was handled by the my childhood's home abraham lincoln state and county Republican organizations. They were thorough and used the newest photos of abraham lincoln with caption techniques to sustain the enthusiasm of party members and thus obtain high turnout. There was little effort to convert non-Republicans, and there was phrase + abraham lincoln virtually no campaigning in the pliny white abraham lincoln South except for a few border cities such as St. Louis, Missouri, and Wheeling, Virginia; indeed the party did not run political life of abraham lincoln a slate of electors in most of the South. In the North, there presedent abraham lincoln were thousands of quote from abraham lincoln Republican speakers, tons of campaign posters and leaflets, and thousands of newspaper editorials. They focused first on the party platform, and quotes from abraham lincoln second on Lincoln's statue of abraham lincoln life story, making the most of his boyhood poverty, his pioneer background, his native genius, his symbolism abraham lincoln manchurian candidate rise from obscurity to fame. His nicknames, "Honest Abe" and "the Rail-Splitter," were exploited the importance of abraham lincoln to the full. The point was to emphasize the superior power of "free labor", whereby a common farm boy could work us navy abraham lincoln his way to the top vintage abraham lincoln playing cards by his own efforts.
On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected the 16th President of what is the day of abraham lincoln assasination the United States, beating Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and what were abraham lincolns two nicknames John C. Bell of the new Constitutional Union Party. Lincoln was the first Republican president. where abraham lincoln was born He won entirely on the strength of his support in the North: he was whhy was abraham lincoln assasinate not even on the ballot in nine states 7th grade abraham lincoln in the South — and won only 2 of 996 counties in the other Southern a box owned by abraham lincoln states. Lincoln gained 1,865,908 a timeline on abraham lincoln votes (39.9% of the total,) for 180 electoral votes; Douglas 1,380,202 (29.5%) for 12 electoral abraham and lincoln votes; Breckenridge 848,019 (18.1%) for 72 electoral votes; and Bell 590,901 (12.5%) for 39 electoral votes. There were fusion tickets in some states, abraham james lincoln co tn abraham lincoln ' and biography but even if his opponents had combined in every state, Lincoln had a majority vote in all but two of the states in which he abraham lincoln accomplishments won the electoral votes and would still abraham lincoln acomplisment have won the electoral college and the election.
Secession winter 1860–1861
As Lincoln's election became more abraham lincoln and family probable, secessionists made it clear that their states would leave the abraham lincoln blackhawk war Union. South Carolina took the lead followed by six other cotton-growing states in the deep South. abraham lincoln bodyguard kansas The upper abraham lincoln born dead South (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkansas) listened to and rejected the secessionist appeal. They decided to stay in the abraham lincoln by ingri and edgar parin d'aulaire Union, though warning Lincoln abraham lincoln capital airport they would not support an invasion through their territory. The seven Confederate states seceded abraham lincoln chicago before Lincoln took office, declaring themselves an entirely new nation, the Confederate States of America. President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize abraham lincoln civil war facts abraham lincoln coinproclaimed the first thanksgiving day the Confederacy, which became the immediate cause of the war.
President-elect Lincoln evaded possible assassins in Baltimore and on February 23, 1861, abraham lincoln council rochester troup arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C. At Lincoln's inauguration on March 4, 1861, the Turners formed Lincoln's abraham lincoln death mask bodyguard; and a sizable garrison of federal troops was also present, ready to protect abraham lincoln diorama the capital from Confederate invasion or insurrection from Confederates in abraham lincoln diorama kids the capital city.
Photograph showing abraham lincoln education the March 4, 1861, inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of U.S. Capitol Building
In his First Inaugural Address, abraham lincoln essay abraham lincoln ethics Lincoln declared, "I hold that in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution the Union of these States is perpetual. Perpetuity is implied, if not abraham lincoln ford's theatre expressed, in the fundamental law of all national governments", arguing further that abraham lincoln funeral train the purpose of the United States abraham lincoln general request Constitution was "to form a more perfect union" than the Articles of Confederation which abraham lincoln hat were explicitly perpetual, and thus the Constitution too was perpetual. He asked rhetorically that even abraham lincoln john f. kennedy assassination were the Constitution a simple contract, would it abraham lincoln letters to governors not require the agreement of all parties to rescind it?
Also in his inaugural address, in a abraham lincoln life quote final attempt to unite the Union and prevent the looming abraham lincoln liofe war, Lincoln supported the pending Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which had passed Congress. It explicitly protected slavery in those states in which abraham lincoln loses and tragedies it already existed, and was designed to abraham lincoln monuments appeal not to the Confederacy but to the critical border states. Lincoln abraham lincoln movie download public domain adamantly opposed the Crittenden Compromise, however, which would have permitted slavery in the territories. Despite support for the Crittenden compromise abraham lincoln museum, springfield, il among some Republicans, Lincoln denounced it saying abraham lincoln national cemetary and elmwood illinois it "would amount to a perpetual covenant of war against every abraham lincoln national museum people, tribe, and state owning a foot of land between here and Tierra abraham lincoln negro island resettlement del Fuego [at the far end of South America]."
By the time Lincoln abraham lincoln overcomming obstacles took office, the Confederacy was an established fact, and no leaders of the insurrection proposed rejoining the Union on any terms. No abraham lincoln parents names compromise was found abraham lincoln pics because no compromise was possible. Lincoln perhaps could have allowed the southern states to abraham lincoln pictures yeh secede, and some Republicans recommended that. However, conservative Democratic nationalists, such as Jeremiah S. Black, Joseph Holt, and Edwin abraham lincoln playing cards M. Stanton had taken control of Buchanan's cabinet around abraham lincoln political ribbons January 1, 1861, and refused to accept secession. Lincoln and nearly all Republican leaders adopted abraham lincoln portraits and engravings this nationalistic position by March 1861: the Union could not be broken. However, Lincoln being abraham lincoln power point presentation on a strict follower of the constitution, would not take any abraham lincoln presidential library and museum action against the South unless the Unionists themselves were abraham lincoln presidential library museum attacked first. It finally happened in April 1861.
Fighting begins: 1861–1862
After Union troops abraham lincoln printable picture at Fort Sumter were fired upon and forced to surrender in abraham lincoln prohecy April 1861, Lincoln called on governors of every state to send 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and abraham lincoln puppet "preserve the Union," abraham lincoln quote on challenges which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. Virginia, which abraham lincoln quote religion had repeatedly warned Lincoln it would not abraham lincoln school, lima, peru allow an invasion of its territory or join an attack on another state, then seceded, abraham lincoln senior high along with North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas.
Nevins argues that Lincoln made three serious abraham lincoln signature mistakes at this point. He at first underestimated the strength of the Confederacy, assuming abraham lincoln sites that 75,000 troops could end the insurrection in 90 days. Second, he overestimated the strength of Unionist abraham lincoln sitting sentiment in the South and border states; he assumed he could call the bluff of the insurrectionists abraham lincoln speech to women's group and they would fade away. Finally he misunderstood abraham lincoln speeches black civil rights the demands of Unionists in the border abraham lincoln state of union states, who warned they would not support an invasion of the Confederacy.
The slave abraham lincoln stories states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware did not secede, and Lincoln urgently negotiated with state leaders there, promising abraham lincoln suppression of the press not to interfere with slavery in loyal states. After the fighting started, he had abraham lincoln talking rebel leaders arrested in all the border areas and held in military prisons abraham lincoln tomb without trial; over 18,000 were arrested. None were executed; one — abraham lincoln union Clement Vallandingham — was exiled; all were released, usually abraham lincoln united states penny after two or three months. See Ex parte Merryman.
Emancipation abraham lincoln word search Proclamation
Lincoln met with his Cabinet for the first reading of abraham lincoln work the Emancipation Proclamation draft on July 22, abraham lincolns assignation 1862. L-R: Edwin M. Stanton, Salmon P. Chase, Abraham Lincoln, Gideon Welles, Caleb Smith, William H. Seward, Montgomery Blair abraham lincolns second inagrual address and Edward Bates.
Congress in abraham lincolns second inagrual speech July 1862 moved to free the slaves by passing the Second Confiscation Act. The goal was to weaken the rebellion, which an autobiography about abraham lincoln was led and controlled by slave owners. This did not abolish antique picture of abraham lincoln worth the legal institution of slavery (the 13th Amendment did that), but it assignation of abraham lincoln conspisacy shows Lincoln had the support of Congress in liberating the slaves autobiographic memoirs of abraham lincoln owned by rebels. Lincoln implemented the new law by his "Emancipation Proclamation."
Lincoln is background abraham lincoln well known for ending slavery in the United States. biography of abraham lincoln when he became a president In 1861-62, Lincoln made it clear that the North was fighting the war to preserve the Union, not to abolish book review on autobiography of abraham lincoln slavery. Freeing the case of uriah forrest lincoln abraham letter slaves became, in late 1862, a war measure to weaken the rebellion by destroying the economic base of its leadership class. Abolitionists collected works of abraham lincoln criticized Lincoln for his slowness, but on August 22, 1862, Lincoln explained,
||I would save the Union. I would save it dred scott u.s supreme court case and abraham lincoln the shortest way under the Constitution. The sooner the national authority can be restored; the nearer the Union will be "the education did abraham lincoln receive Union as it was." ... My paramount object in eric saunders+ uss abraham lincoln this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save how much education did abraham lincoln have or to destroy slavery. If I could save how tall is abraham lincoln the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could john gibson big story abraham lincoln save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save members of the abraham lincoln brigade it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.
The Emancipation Proclamation, announced on September 22 norman rockwell abraham lincoln figurine and put in effect January 1, 1863, freed slaves in territories not under Union control. As Union photo of abraham lincoln armies advanced south, more slaves were liberated until all of picture of abraham lincoln family them in Confederate hands were freed (over three picture of depressed abraham lincoln million). Lincoln later said: "I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing pictures of abraham lincoln assassination right, than I do in signing this paper." The proclamation made abolishing slavery in the rebel states an official war goal. Lincoln then racest quotes by abraham lincoln threw his energies salvador dali abraham lincoln into passage of the 13th Amendment to permanently abolish slavery throughout the nation.
Lincoln had for some time been working on plans to set up colonies for the newly freed slaves. He remarked upon colonization soldier dies on uss abraham lincoln favorably in the Emancipation Proclamation but all attempts at such a speeches of abraham lincoln massive undertaking failed. As Frederick springfield illinois and abraham lincoln home Douglass observed, Lincoln was, "The first great man that I talked with in tax exempt lincoln abraham granted the United States freely who in no single instance reminded me of the difference between himself and myself, of the history place presents abraham lincoln timeline the difference of color."
While Lincoln is usually portrayed bearded, he first grew a beard in 1861 at the trivia about abraham lincoln suggestion of 11-year-old web site cv 72 abraham lincoln Grace Bedell.
Lincoln believed in the Whig theory of the presidency, which left Congress to write the laws what did abraham lincoln think of fowl language while he signed them, vetoing only bills that threatened what is the real assasination of abraham lincoln his war powers. Thus, he signed the Homestead Act in 1862, making available millions of acres of government-held land in the west for purchase what number president was abraham lincoln at very low cost. The Morrill Land-Grant what was abraham lincoln mother name Colleges Act, also signed in 1862, provided government grants for agricultural universities in each state. Lincoln also signed what was abraham lincoln mothers name the Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864, which granted when abraham lincoln was born federal support to the construction of the United States' first transcontinental railroad, which was completed when did abraham lincoln outlaw slavery in 1869. where is abraham lincoln buried Other important legislation involved money matters, including the first income tax and higher tariffs. Also included was the where was abraham lincoln born in illinois creation of the system of national banks by the National Banking who assassinated abraham lincoln Acts of 1863, 1864, and 1865 which allowed the creation of a strong national financial system.
Lincoln sent who shot abraham lincoln a senior general to put down the "Sioux Uprising" of August 1862 in 1809-1909 abraham lincoln grand army of the republic medal Minnesota. Presented with 303 death warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who had a perfect tribute abraham lincoln massacred innocent farmers, Lincoln affirmed 39 of these for execution (one was later reprieved).
1864 election and second inauguration
After Union a picture of abraham lincoln victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg a speech small speech from abraham lincoln and Chattanooga in 1863, victory seemed at hand. Lincoln promoted Ulysses S. Grant General-in-Chief on March 12, 1864. When about abraham lincoln the spring campaigns all turned into bloody stalemates, Lincoln strongly abraham by lincoln quote supported Grant's strategy of wearing down Lee's army at the cost of heavy Union casualties. abraham family lincoln lithograph Lincoln easily defeated efforts to deny his renomination, and selected Andrew Johnson, a War abraham from lincoln quote Democrat from the Southern state of Tennessee as his running mate in order to abraham lincoln & indepence day form a broader coalition. They ran on the new Union Party abraham lincoln & indepence day quote ticket; it was a coalition of Republicans and War Democrats.
Republicans across the country had the jitters in abraham lincoln & men of war times August, abraham lincoln 's children fearing that Lincoln would be defeated. Acknowledging those fears, Lincoln wrote out and signed the following pledge that he would destroy abraham lincoln 's favorite food the Confederacy even if he was defeated for reelection; he did not show it to abraham lincoln + reconstruction policy his cabinet, asking them each to sign abraham lincoln - journal excertps the sealed envelope. Lincoln wrote:
||This morning, as for abraham lincoln 1930 - film reviews some days past, it seems exceedingly probable abraham lincoln 2nd inaugural address quote that this Administration will not be re-elected. Then it will be my abraham lincoln administration duty to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the election and the abraham lincoln aide inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that abraham lincoln aircraft carrier he cannot possibly save it afterwards.
That is, Lincoln pledged abraham lincoln amanipatiopn doctumation to destroy the Confederacy before he left office on March 4, 1865.
The Democratic platform followed abraham lincoln and abolition of slavery the Peace wing of the party, calling the abraham lincoln and biography war a "failure." However their candidate, General George McClellan, abraham lincoln and disinterment supported the war and repudiated the platform.
Lincoln provided Grant with new replacements and mobilized the Union party to support Grant abraham lincoln and financing the war and talk up local support for abraham lincoln and his family the war. Sherman's capture of Atlanta in September ended defeatist abraham lincoln and letters jitters; the Democratic Party was deeply split, with some leaders and most soldiers openly for Lincoln; the Union party was united and energized, abraham lincoln and marfan syndrome and Lincoln was easily reelected in a landslide. He won all abraham lincoln and paralysis but two states, capturing 212 of 233 electoral votes.
On March abraham lincoln and the 5 dollar bill 4, 1865, he delivered his second inaugural address, which was his abraham lincoln and the illinois legislature favorite of all his speeches. At this time, a victory over the abraham lincoln and the laws of war rebels was at hand, slavery was dead, and Lincoln was looking to the future.
||Fondly abraham lincoln and the second american revolution do we hope — fervently do we pray — that this mighty scourge of war may speedily abraham lincoln and the5 dollar bill pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled abraham lincoln as a baby by the bond-man's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and abraham lincoln as ceremonial head until every drop of blood drawn abraham lincoln assassination conspiracy with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was abraham lincoln assassination edwin stanton said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord, are abraham lincoln autobiography true and righteous altogether".
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God abraham lincoln before and after gives us to see abraham lincoln before the presidency the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's abraham lincoln beliefs wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and abraham lincoln best friend quote for his widow, and his orphan abraham lincoln birthday — to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and abraham lincoln bodyguard lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations
Conducting the war effort
The war abraham lincoln book shop was a source of constant frustration for the president, and it occupied nearly all of abraham lincoln bookstore his time. Lincoln had a contentious relationship with General George B. abraham lincoln boyhood home park McClellan, who became general-in-chief of all the Union armies in abraham lincoln bureau the wake of the embarrassing Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run abraham lincoln calenders and after the retirement of Winfield Scott in late 1861. Lincoln wished to abraham lincoln carrier take an active part in planning the war strategy despite his abraham lincoln cause and effect inexperience in military affairs. Lincoln's strategic priorities were twofold: first, to ensure that Washington, D.C., was well defended; and second, to conduct an aggressive abraham lincoln charisteristic war effort in hopes of ending the war abraham lincoln civil war quote quickly and appeasing the Northern public and press, who pushed for an offensive war. McClellan, a youthful West abraham lincoln common themes in his writings Point graduate and abraham lincoln congressmen who railroad executive called back to military service, took a more cautious approach. McClellan took several months to plan and execute abraham lincoln conspericies his Peninsula Campaign, which involved capturing Richmond by moving the Army of the Potomac abraham lincoln cracked plate by boat to the peninsula between the James and York Rivers. McClellan's delay irritated Lincoln, abraham lincoln cream pie recipes as did abraham lincoln description of america divided McClellan's insistence that no troops were needed to defend Washington, D.C. Lincoln abraham lincoln didn't quit newspaper article insisted on holding some of McClellan's troops to defend the capital, a decision McClellan blamed abraham lincoln disease for the ultimate failure of his Peninsula Campaign.
The Running Machine
An 1864 cartoon featuring Lincoln, William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward abraham lincoln economic issues 2 examples and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration.
McClellan, a lifelong Democrat who was temperamentally conservative, was relieved abraham lincoln election win as general-in-chief after releasing his Harrison's Landing Letter, where he abraham lincoln elementary school offered unsolicited political advice to Lincoln urging abraham lincoln elementry caution in the war effort. McClellan's letter incensed Radical Republicans, who successfully abraham lincoln failure to capture stonewall pressured Lincoln to appoint fellow Republican John Pope as head of the new Army of Virginia. Pope complied with Lincoln's strategic desire for the Union abraham lincoln famous speeches to move towards Richmond from the north, thus guarding Washington, abraham lincoln fighting jack armstrong D.C. However, Pope abraham lincoln forgiveness was soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run during the summer of 1862, forcing abraham lincoln freeman bureau the Army of the Potomac back into the defenses of Washington for a second time. abraham lincoln general instead of letter Pope was sent to Minnesota to fight the Sioux.
Panicked by Confederate General Robert E. Lee's invasion of abraham lincoln ghost story Maryland, Lincoln restored McClellan to command of all forces abraham lincoln ghosts around Washington in time for the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. It was abraham lincoln hero the Union victory in that battle that allowed abraham lincoln high council bluffs Lincoln to release his Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln relieved McClellan of command shortly abraham lincoln high school council bluffs iowa after the 1862 midterm elections and appointed Republican Ambrose Burnside to head the Army of the Potomac, who promised to follow through on Lincoln's strategic vision abraham lincoln high school/philadelphia for an aggressive offensive against abraham lincoln hotel springfield Lee and Richmond. After Burnside was stunningly defeated at Fredericksburg, Joseph Hooker abraham lincoln hotel springfield illinois was given command, despite his idle talk about becoming a military strong abraham lincoln i want you man. Hooker was routed by Lee at Chancellorsville in May 1863 and relieved of command early in abraham lincoln in his own words the subsequent Gettysburg Campaign.
After the Union victory at Gettysburg, Meade's abraham lincoln in washington dc failure to pursue Lee, and months of inactivity for the Army of the Potomac, Lincoln decided to bring in a abraham lincoln inaugural western general: General Ulysses S. Grant. He had a abraham lincoln inaugural address solid string of victories in the Western Theater, including Vicksburg and Chattanooga. Earlier, reacting abraham lincoln indian immigration to criticism of Grant, Lincoln was quoted as saying, "I cannot spare this abraham lincoln info man. He fights." Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign abraham lincoln jfk assassination in 1864, using a strategy of a war of attrition, characterized by high Union losses at battles abraham lincoln john kennedy such as the Wilderness and Cold Harbor but by proportionately higher losses in the Confederate army. abraham lincoln jokes Grant's aggressive campaign eventually bottled up Lee in abraham lincoln jumped out of his grave the Siege of Petersburg, took Richmond, and brought the war to a close in the spring of 1865.
Lincoln authorized abraham lincoln lesson plan Grant to destroy the civilian infrastructure that was keeping the Confederacy alive, abraham lincoln letter to teacher hoping thereby to destroy the South's morale and weaken its economic ability to abraham lincoln letter to widow continue the war. This allowed Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and abraham lincoln library springfield il Philip Sheridan to destroy farms and towns in the Shenandoah abraham lincoln lost every election Valley, Georgia, and South Carolina. The damage in Sherman's March to the Sea through Georgia totaled in excess of $100 million.
Lincoln had abraham lincoln major general request a star-crossed record as a military leader, possessing abraham lincoln medium spiritualism a keen understanding of strategic points (such as abraham lincoln memorial museum the Mississippi River and the fortress city of Vicksburg) and the importance of defeating the enemy's army, rather than abraham lincoln memorial society/seattle simply capturing cities. However, he had limited success in motivating his commanders to abraham lincoln middle name adopt his strategies, until in late 1863 he found in Grant abraham lincoln mother a man who shared his vision abraham lincoln mother quote of the war, his insistence on using black troops, and was able to bring that vision to abraham lincoln movie reality with his relentless pursuit of coordinated offensives abraham lincoln museum in springfield in multiple theaters of war.
Lincoln showed a keen curiosity with military campaigning during the war. He spent hours at the War abraham lincoln museum springfield, il Department telegraph office, reading dispatches from his generals on many nights. abraham lincoln museum; fort wayne, in He frequently visited battle sites and seemed abraham lincoln navy quote fascinated by watching scenes of war. During Jubal A. Early's raid into Washington, D.C., in 1864, Lincoln had to be abraham lincoln news told to duck his head to avoid being shot while observing the scenes of battle.
The last photograph taken of Lincoln alive, April 10, 1865.
Rhetoric mobilizes the nation
Lincoln was more successful in giving the war meaning to Northern civilians through his oratorical skills. Lincoln possessed an extraordinary command of the English language, as evidenced by the Gettysburg Address, a speech dedicating a cemetery of Union soldiers from the Battle of Gettysburg that he delivered on November 19, 1863. Lincoln's choice words resonated across the nation and across history, defying Lincoln's own prediction that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here." Lincoln's second inaugural address is also greatly admired and often quoted. In these speeches, Lincoln articulated better than anyone the rationale behind the Union effort.
Civil liberties suspended
During the Civil War, Lincoln appropriated powers no previous President had wielded: he used his war powers to proclaim a blockade, suspended the writ of habeas corpus, spent money without congressional authorization, and imprisoned 18,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers without trial. Nearly all of his actions, although vehemently denounced by the Copperheads, were subsequently upheld by Congress and the Courts.
Reconstruction began during the war as Lincoln and his associates pondered the questions of how to reintegrate the Southern states back into the Union, and what to do with Confederate leaders and with the freed slaves. Lincoln was the leader of the "moderates" regarding Reconstruction policy, and usually was opposed by the Radical Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens in the House and Charles Sumner and Benjamin Wade in the Senate (though he cooperated with those men on most other issues). Lincoln was determined to find a course that would reunite the nation as soon as possible and not permanently alienate the Southerners, and throughout the war Lincoln urged speedy elections under generous terms in areas behind Union lines. Critical decisions had to be made during the war, as state after state was reconquered. Of special importance were Tennessee, where Lincoln appointed Andrew Johnson as governor, and Louisiana where Lincoln tried a plan that would restore the state when 10% of the voters agreed. The Radicals thought that policy was too lenient, and passed their own plan, the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864. Lincoln vetoed Wade-Davis, and the Radicals retaliated by refusing to seat representatives elected from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee.
On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia; the war was effectively over. The other rebel armies surrendered and there was no guerrilla warfare. Lincoln went to Richmond to make a public gesture of sitting at Jefferson Davis's own desk, symbolically saying to the nation that the President of the United States held authority over the entire land. He was greeted at the city as a conquering hero by freed slaves, whose sentiments were epitomized by one admirer's quote, "I know I am free for I have seen the face of Father Abraham and have felt him." When a general asked Lincoln how the defeated Confederates should be treated, Lincoln replied, "Let 'em up easy."
The assassination of Abraham Lincoln. From left to right: Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth.
Originally, John Wilkes Booth had formulated a plan to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for the release of Confederate prisoners. In April he changed to a plan for assassination.
Booth, a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland, heard that the President and Mrs. Lincoln, along with the Grants, would be attending Ford's Theatre. Having failed in a plot to kidnap Lincoln earlier, Booth informed his co-conspirators of his intention to kill Lincoln. Others were assigned to assassinate vice-president Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward.
Without his main bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon, to whom he related his famous dream of his own assassination, Lincoln left to attend the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater. As a lone bodyguard wandered, and Lincoln sat in his state box (Box 7) in the balcony, Booth crept up behind the President's box and waited for the funniest line of the play, hoping the laughter would cover the noise of the gunshot. On stage, a character named Lord Dundreary (played by Harry Hawk) who has just been accused of ignorance in regards to the manners of good society, replies, "Well, I guess I know enough to turn you inside out, old gal — you sockdologizing old man-trap..." When the laughter came Booth jumped into the box with the President and aimed a single-shot, round-slug .44 caliber Deringer at his head, firing at point-blank range. The bullet entered behind Lincoln's left ear and lodged behind his right eyeball. Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth but was cut by Booth's knife. Booth then leapt to the stage and shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" (Latin: "Thus always to tyrants") and escaped, despite a broken leg suffered in the leap. A twelve-day manhunt ensued, in which Booth was chased by Federal agents (under the direction of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton), until he was finally cornered in a barnhouse in Virginia and shot, dying soon after.
An army surgeon, Doctor Charles Leale, quickly assessed the wound as mortal. The President was taken across the street from the theater to the Petersen House, where he lay in a coma for nine hours before he died. Several physicians attended Lincoln, including U.S. Army Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes of the Army Medical Museum. Using a probe, Barnes located some fragments of Lincoln's skull and the ball lodged 6 inches (15 cm) inside his brain. Lincoln never regained consciousness and was officially pronounced dead at 7:22 a.m. April 15, 1865. There is some disagreement among historians as to Stanton's words after Lincoln died. All agree he began "Now he belongs to the..." with some stating he said "ages", while others believe he said "angels". After Lincoln's body was returned to the White House, his body was prepared for his lying in state in the East Room.
The Army Medical Museum, now named the National Museum of Health and Medicine, has retained in its collection several artifacts relating to the assassination. Currently on display in the museum are the bullet that was fired from the Deringer pistol, the probe used by Barnes, pieces of Lincoln's skull and hair, and the surgeon's cuff stained with Lincoln's blood.
Lincoln's funeral train carried his remains, as well as 300 mourners and the casket of his son William, 1,654 miles (2,661 km) to Illinois.
Lincoln's body was carried by train in a grand funeral procession through several states on its way back to Illinois. The nation mourned a man whom many viewed as the savior of the United States. Copperheads celebrated the death of a man they considered an unconstitutional tyrant. He was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois, where a 177 foot (54 m) tall granite tomb surmounted with several bronze statues of Lincoln was constructed by 1874. To prevent repeated attempts to steal Lincoln's body and hold it for ransom, Robert Todd Lincoln had Lincoln exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet thick in 1901.
- Further information: Abraham Lincoln's burial and exhumation
Administration and Cabinet
Lincoln was known for appointing his political rivals to high positions in his Cabinet to keep in line all factions of his party — and to let them battle each other and not combine against Lincoln. Historians agree that except for Cameron, it was a highly effective group.
Portrait of Abraham Lincoln
||William H. Seward
||Salmon P. Chase
|William P. Fessenden
|Edwin M. Stanton
||Caleb B. Smith
|John P. Usher
Lincoln appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:
- Noah Haynes Swayne – 1862
- Samuel Freeman Miller – 1862
- David Davis – 1862
- Stephen Johnson Field – 1863
- Salmon P. Chase – Chief Justice – 1864
Major presidential acts
Signed as President
- Revenue Act of 1861; Homestead Act; Morill Land-Grant College Act; Internal Revenue Act of 1862; Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864; United States Department of Agriculture (1862); National Banking Act of 1863; Internal Revenue Act of 1864
Lincoln spent most of his attention on military and diplomatic matters and politics, but with his strong support, Congress and his cabinet established the current system of national banks with the National Bank Act. His Administration increased the tariff to raise revenue, imposed the first income tax, issued hundreds of millions of dollars of bonds and the first national Greenbacks (paper money), encouraged immigration from Europe, started the transcontinental railroad, set up the Department of Agriculture, and encouraged farm ownership with the Homestead Act of 1862. During the war, his Treasury department effectively controlled all cotton trade in the occupied South—the most dramatic incursion of federal controls on the economy.
States admitted to the Union
- West Virginia – 1863
- Nevada – 1864
Legacy and memorials
Daniel Chester French's seated Lincoln faces the National Mall to the east.
A portrait of Lincoln as seen on the U.S. five dollar bill.
Lincoln's likeness on Mt. Rushmore.
Lincoln as depicted on the Illinois state quarter
Lincoln's death made the President a martyr to many. Repeated polls of historians have ranked Lincoln as among the greatest presidents in U.S. history and average scholar ranking summed up with Lincoln at the first position. Among contemporary admirers, Lincoln is usually seen as a figure who personifies classical values of honesty, integrity, as well as respect for individual and minority rights, and human freedom in general. Many American organizations of all purposes and agendas continue to cite his name and image, with interests ranging from the gay rights group Log Cabin Republicans to the insurance corporation Lincoln Financial. The Lincoln automobile is also named after him.
Lincoln stamp, issued Nov. 19, 1965.
Lincoln has been memorialized in many city names, notably the capital of Nebraska. Lincoln, Illinois, is the only city to be named for Abraham Lincoln before he became President. Lincoln's name and image appear in numerous places. These include the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (pictured, left); the U.S. $5 bill and the 1 cent coin; as part of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial; Lincoln's Tomb, Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois. In addition, New Salem, Illinois (a reconstruction of Lincoln's early adult hometown), Ford's Theater and Petersen House (where he died) are all preserved as museums. The Lincoln Shrine in Redlands, California is located behind the A.K. Smiley Public Library. The state nickname for Illinois is Land of Lincoln.
Counties in 19 U.S. states (Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, West Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) are named after Lincoln.
Abraham Lincoln's birthday, February 12, (the same date as Charles Darwin), is observed in Illinois and many other states as a separate legal holiday, Lincoln's Birthday. It was previously a national holiday that is now Presidents' Day. Over time Presidents' Day has become a common name for the federal holiday. A dozen states have legal holidays celebrating the third Monday in February as 'Presidents' Day' and a combination Washington-Lincoln Day.
Proof-quality Lincoln cent with cameo effect, obverse.
Lincoln's birthplace and family home are national historic memorials: Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site in Hodgenville, Kentucky and Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum opened in 2005 in Springfield as a major tourist attraction with state-of-the-art exhibits. The Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery is located in Elwood, Illinois.
Statues of Lincoln can be found in other countries. In Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, is a 13-foot (4 m) high bronze statue, a gift from the United States, dedicated in 1966 by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The U.S. received a statue of Benito Juárez in exchange, which is in Washington, D.C. Juárez and Lincoln exchanged friendly letters, and Mexico remembers Lincoln's opposition to the Mexican-American War. There is also a statue in Tijuana, Mexico, showing Lincoln standing and destroying the chains of slavery. There are at least three statues of Lincoln in the United Kingdom — one in London by Augustus St. Gaudens, one in Manchester by George Grey Barnard and another in Edinburgh by George Bissell. In Havana, Cuba, there is a bust of Abraham Lincoln in the Museum of the Revolution, a small statue of him in front of the Abraham Lincoln School, and a bust of him near the Capitolio.
The ballistic missile submarine Abraham Lincoln (SSBN-602) and the aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) were named in his honor. Also, the Liberty ship, SS Nancy Hanks was named to honor his mother. During the Spanish Civil War the American faction of the International Brigades named themselves the Abraham Lincoln Brigade after Lincoln.
In a recent public vote entitled "The Greatest American," Lincoln placed second (placing first was Ronald Reagan).
- Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
- American School, Lincoln's economic views.
- Cultural depictions of Abraham Lincoln
- Lincoln-Kennedy coincidences
- List of United States Presidential religious affiliations
- Origins of the American Civil War
- ^ Donald (1995) p 21
- ^ The farm site is now preserved as part of Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site.
- ^ Donald, (1995) pp. 28, 152.
- ^ Donald, (1995) ch. 2.
- ^ Thomas (1952) 32-34; Basler (1946) p. 551
- ^ Beveridge (1928) 1:127-8
- ^ Protest in Illinois Legislature on Slavery, p.75, March 3, 1837
- ^ Beveridge 1:349. Lincoln had been practicing with the broad sword.
- ^ "The Family of Mary Lincoln" (n.d.)
- ^ Congressional Globe, 30th Session (1848) pp.93-95
- ^ House Journal, 30th Session (1848) pp.183-184
- ^ Albert J. Beveridge, Abraham Lincoln: 1809-1858 (1928) 1: 428-33; Donald (1995) p. 140-43.
- ^ Donald, (1995) ch. 6.
- ^ Donald, (1995) ch. 7.
- ^ Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, vol. 2, p. 255, Rutgers University Press (1953, 1990).
- ^ A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand, June 1858
- ^ First Debate with Stephen A. Douglas at Ottawa, Illinois, August 21, 1858
- ^ Fourth Debate with Stephen A. Douglas at Charleston, Illinois, September 18, 1858
- ^ Donald, (1995) ch. 8.
- ^ Gabor S. Boritt, "'And the War Came'? Abraham Lincoln and the Question of Individual Responsibility," Why the Civil War Came ed by Boritt (1996), pp 3-30.
- ^ Thomas (1952) p 216; Reinhard H. Luthin, The First Lincoln Campaign (1944); Nevins vol 4;
- ^ Allan Nevins, The Improvised War, 1861-1862 (1959) p 29
- ^ Letter to Horace Greeley, August 22, 1862
- ^ Lincoln addressed the issue of his consistency in an 1864 letter to Albert G. Hodges. Letter to Albert G. Hodges, April 4, 1864
- ^ Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, by Frederick Douglass, 1895
- ^ Lincoln, Memorandum concerning his probable failure of re-election, August 23, 1864. Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, vol. 7, p. 514, (1953).
- ^ Lincoln, Second inaugural address, March 4, 1865. From Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, vol. 8, p. 333, Rutgers University Press (1953, 1990).
- ^ Donald (1995) ch. 20
- ^ Donald (1995) 576, 580, 
- ^ Booth plans to kidnap Lincoln (timeline)
- Beveridge, Albert J. Abraham Lincoln: 1809-1858 (1928). 2 vol. to 1858; notable for strong, unbiased political coverage
- David Herbert Donald. Lincoln (1999) ISBN 0-684-82535-X, very well reviewed by scholars; Donald has won two Pulitzer prizes for biography
- William E. Gienapp. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography by ISBN 0-19-515099-6 (2002), short
- Allen C. Guelzo. Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President ISBN 0-8028-3872-3 (1999)
- John Hay & John George Nicolay. Abraham Lincoln: a History (1890); online at Volume 1 and Volume 2 10 volumes in all; highly detailed narrative of era written by Lincoln's top aides
- Reinhard H Luthin. The Real Abraham Lincoln (1960), emphasis on politics
- Mark E. Neely. The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (1984), detailed articles on many men and movements associated with AL
- Mark E. Neely. The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America (1993), Pulitzer prize winning author
- Stephen B. Oates. With Malice Toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1994)
- James G. Randall. Lincoln the President (4 vol., 1945–55; reprint 2000.) by prize winning scholar
- Mr. Lincoln excerpts ed. by Richard N. Current (1957)
- Carl Sandburg Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years (2 vol 1926); The War Years (4 vol 1939). Pulitzer Prize winning biography by famous poet
- Benjamin P. Thomas; Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952)
- Baker, Jean H. Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography (1987)
- Belz, Herman. Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era (1998)
- Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream (1994). Lincoln's economic theory and policies
- Boritt, Gabor S. ed. Lincoln the War President (1994).
- Boritt, Gabor S., ed. The Historian's Lincoln. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988, historiography
- Bruce, Robert V. Lincoln and the Tools of War (1956) on weapons development during the war
- Chittenden, Lucius E., Recollections of President Lincoln and His Administration, New York, Harper & Brothers, 1891. – Google Books
- Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War Era (1960).
- Donald, David Herbert. We Are Lincoln Men: Abraham Lincoln and His Friends Simon & Schuster, (2003).
- Don E. Fehrenbacher. "The Origins and Purpose of Lincoln's "House-Divided" Speech," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 46, No. 4. (Mar., 1960), pp. 615-643. in JSTOR
- Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (1970) intellectual history of different prewar faction's in AL's party
- Doris Kearns Goodwin, Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln ISBN 0-684-82490-6 (2005).
- Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997). AL's plans for Reconstruction
- Hendrick, Burton J. Lincoln's War Cabinet (1946)
- Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (1948) ch 5: "Abraham Lincoln and the Self-Made Myth".
- Holzer, Harold. Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President (2004).
- McPherson, James M. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution (1992)
- McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988). Pulitzer Prize winner surveys all aspects of the war
- Morgenthau, Hans J., and David Hein. Essays on Lincoln's Faith and Politics. Lanham, MD: University Press of America for the White Burkett Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia, 1983.
- Neely, Mark E. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (1992). Pulitzer Prize winner.
- Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union 8-volume (1947-1971). 1. Fruits of Manifest Destiny, 1847-1852; 2. A House Dividing, 1852-1857; 3. Douglas, Buchanan, and Party Chaos, 1857-1859; 4. Prologue to Civil War, 1859-1861; 5. The Improvised War, 1861-1862; 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862-1863; 7. The Organized War, 1863-1864; 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864-1865; most thorough coverage of the era, with Lincoln at center
- Philip S. Paludan The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (1994), reviewers call it the most thorough treatment of AL's administration
- Merrill D. Peterson. Lincoln in American Memory (1994). how Lincoln was remembered after 1865
- Randall, James G. Lincoln the Liberal Statesman (1947).
- Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997)
- Shenk, Joshua Wolf. Lincoln's Melancholy: How Depression Challenged a President and Fueled His Greatness (2005).
- Gore Vidal. Lincoln ISBN 0-375-70876-6, a novel.
- Williams,T. Harry. Lincoln and His Generals (1967).
- Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America by ISBN 0-671-86742-3
- Wilson, Douglas L. Honor's Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln by (1999).
Lincoln in art and popular culture
- DiLorenzo, Thomas (2002). The Real Lincoln. ISBN 0-7615-2646-3.
- Lauriston, Bullard. F. (1952). Lincoln in Marble and Bronze. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
- Mead, Franklin B. (1932). Heroic Statues in Bronze of Abraham Lincoln: Introducing The Hoosier Youth by Paul Manship. Fort Wayne, Indiana: The Lincoln National Life Foundation.
- Moffatt, Frederick C. (1998). Errant Bronzes: George Grey Barnard's Statues of Abraham Lincoln. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.
- Murry, Freeman Henry Morris  (1972). Emancipation and the Freed in American Sculpture. Freeport, NY: Books For Libraries Press, the Black Heritage Library Collection.
- Petz, Weldon (1987). Michigan's Monumental Tributes to Abraham Lincoln. Historical Society of Michigan.
- Redway, Maurine Whorton; Bracken, Dorothy Kendall (1957). Marks of Lincoln on Our Land. New York: Hastings House, Publishers.
- Savage, Kirk (1997). Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race War and Monument in Nineteenth Century America. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- Tice, George (1984). Lincoln. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
- Basler, Roy P. ed. (1953–55). Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 9 vols., New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.
- Basler, Roy P. ed. (1946). Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings.
- Lincoln, Abraham (1989). Lincoln: Speeches and Writings, 2 vol Library of America edition.
- Lincoln, Abraham (2000). ed by Philip Van Doren Stern: The Life and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. Modern Library Classics.
Find more information on Abraham Lincoln
by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- A Concise Bio of Abraham Lincoln as President
- Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress (1850-1865)
- The Lincoln Institute
- Abraham Lincoln in United States Census Records
- Mr. Lincoln's Virtual Library
- Poetry written by Abraham Lincoln
- The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum Springfield, Illinois
- The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln
- Lincoln Studies Center at Knox College
- Original 1860s Harper's Weekly Images and News on Abraham Lincoln
- The Lincoln Log: A Daily Chronology of the Life of Abraham Lincoln
- Lincoln Memorial Washington, DC
- The Lincoln Museum Fort Wayne, Indiana
- US6469 Patent — Manner of Buoying Vessels — A. Lincoln — 1849
- National Park Service Abraham Lincoln birthplace (includes good early history)
- Abraham Lincoln at the Internet Movie Database
- Lincoln's "Substitute," John Summerfield Staples
- Abraham Lincoln Research Site
Project Gutenberg eTexts
- List of Works by Abraham Lincoln at Project Gutenberg
- Richardson, James D. (compiler). A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents and more: Volume 6, part 1: Abraham Lincoln. includes major (and minor) state papers, but not speeches or letters
- Lincoln's Yarns and Stories.
- Hay, John; Nicolay, John George (1890). Abraham Lincoln: a History.
- Volume 1. to 1856; strong coverage of national politics
- Volume 2. (1832 to 1901) ; covers 1856 to early 1861; very detailed coverage of national politics; part of 10 volume "life and times" written by Lincoln's top aides
- Nicolay, Helen (1907). The Boys' Life of Abraham Lincoln. (1866 to 1954)
- Ketcham, Henry (1901). The Life of Abraham Lincoln. ; popular
- Morse, John T. (1899). Abraham Lincoln. ; a solid scholarly biography
- Francis Fisher Browne (1913). The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln. ; popular
- George Haven Putnam, Litt. D. (1909). Abraham Lincoln: The People's Leader in the Struggle for National Existence.
- Stephenson, Nathaniel W. (1922). Lincoln's Personal Life. ; popular
- Benson (Lorn Charnwood), Godfrey Rathbone (1917). Abraham Lincoln.
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 7th congressional district
March 4, 1847 – March 3, 1849
Thomas Langrell Harris
|Republican Party presidential nominee
1860 (won), 1864 (won)
|President of the United States
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
Presidents of the United States of America
|Washington | J Adams | Jefferson | Madison | Monroe | JQ Adams | Jackson | Van Buren | W Harrison | Tyler | Polk | Taylor | Fillmore | Pierce | Buchanan | Lincoln | A Johnson | Grant | Hayes | Garfield | Arthur | Cleveland | B Harrison | Cleveland | McKinley | T Roosevelt | Taft | Wilson | Harding | Coolidge | Hoover | F Roosevelt | Truman | Eisenhower | Kennedy | L Johnson | Nixon | Ford | Carter | Reagan | GHW Bush | Clinton | GW Bush
|United States Republican Party Presidential Nominees
|Frémont • Lincoln • Grant • Hayes • Garfield • Blaine • Harrison • McKinley • Roosevelt • Taft • Hughes • Harding • Coolidge • Hoover • Landon • Willkie • Dewey • Eisenhower • Nixon • Goldwater • Nixon • Ford • Reagan • GHW Bush • Dole • GW Bush
Categories: Abraham Lincoln | American autodidacts | Union political leaders | Assassinated American politicians | Deaths by firearm | Illinois lawyers | Illinois politicians | Members of the Illinois House of Representatives | Members of the United States House of Representatives from Illinois | Duellists | People from Kentucky | People from Springfield, Illinois | Presidents of the United States | Republican Party (United States) presidential nominees | Postmasters | American abolitionists | United States Senate candidates | United States Whig Party | 1809 births | 1865 deaths