Pregnancy Discrimination


Pregnancy Discrimination in the news

Bosses still discriminate over race, politics and pregnancy 

The Royal Gazette - Dec 27 6:27 AM
Employers in Bermuda are still discriminating against workers on the grounds of pregnancy, race and political persuasion, according to recently-released reports from the Human Rights Commission (HRC).
Nigeria: HIV And Sex Education - Dec 28 2:45 AM
Nigerians particularly Persons Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHAS) and advocates recently joined the rest of the world to mark this year's world AIDS Day.

The Age of Intolerance: Its Consequences for America and the World 
FindLaw - Dec 28 12:12 AM
By nature, I am a big-picture thinker, and this time of year, of course, encourages such intellectual forays. But it is not just the end of the year that prompts me, today, to ponder the larger vista, but also the recent, decisive shift in Congress from Republican to Democratic control.

Dobson on Cheney pregnancy: Kids need dads 
The Argus - Dec 23 6:28 AM
COLORADO SPRINGS, Colo. — James Dobson, chairman of Focus on the Family, says "the two most loving women in the world cannot provide a daddy for a little boy.

- Pregancy Discrimination

Here is an article on Pregnancy Discrimination.

See also: Parental leave

The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (Public Law Pregnacy Discrimination 103-3, enacted February 5, 1993) is a United States labor law allowing an employee to take unpaid leave due to Pregancy Discrimination illness or to care for a sick family member. It was one of the first Pregnany Discrimination Regnancy Discrimination major bills signed by President Bill Clinton in his first term, fulfilling a campaign promise.


  • 1 Provisions
  • 2 History
  • 3 Controversy
  • 4 External Pregnanc Discrimination links


The law recognizes the growing Oregnancy Discrimination needs of balancing family and work obligations and Pergnancy Discrimination promises numerous protections to workers. Some of these protections include:

  • Twelve (12) workweeks Pregnacny Discrimination of leave per twelve (12) months for various reasons such as
    • Caring for a newborn child
    • Handling adoption or foster care placement issues
    • Caring for a sick child, spouse or parent
    • Being physically unable to perform one's job
  • Restoration to the same position upon return to work. If the same position is unavailable, the employer must provide the worker with a position that is substantially equal in pay, benefits, and responsibility.
  • Protection of employee benefits even while on leave. An employee is entitled to reinstatement to all benefits that the employee was receiving before going on leave.
  • Protection of the employee to not have their rights under the Act interfered with or denied by an employer.
  • Protection of the employee from retaliation by an employer for exercising rights under the Act.

Generally, the Act ensures that all workers are able to take extended leaves of absence from work to handle family issues or illness without fear of being terminated from their jobs by their employers or being forced into a lower job upon their return.

The leave guaranteed by the act is unpaid, and is available to those working for employers with 50 or more employees within a 75 mile radius. In addition, an employee must have worked for the company at least 12 months and 1,250 hours in those 12 months. The benefits provided by the Act are not as generous as policies in some other countries, such as Sweden. Swedish parental leave provides 480 days (16 months) of paid leave (80% or more of wage) with similar return benefits to its American counterpart. The Swedish act includes stimulating national gender equality as an explicit goal.

The act also applies to all U.S. government employees and state employees. In 2003, the Supreme Court of the United States, in a 5-4 decision, upheld FMLA coverage for state employees in Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs. The state of Nevada had unsuccessfully challenged the provisions under the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The U.S. Code cite is 29 U.S.C. sec. 2601.


The act was drafted by the National Partnership for Women and Families (formerly known as the National Women's Defense Fund) a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that uses public education and advocacy to promote fairness in the workplace, quality health care, and policies that help women and men meet the dual demands of work and family. The National Partnership also played a prominent role in the passage of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978.


Critics of the act have suggested that, by mandating various forms of leave that are used more often by female than male employees, the Act, like the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, makes women more expensive to employ than men in general. They argue that, in response, employers will engage in subtle discrimination against women in the hiring process, discrimination which is much less obvious to detect than pregnancy discrimination against the already hired. Supporters counter that the act, in contrast to the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, is aimed at both women and men, and is part of an overall strategy to encourage both women and men to take family-related leave in equal proportions. Indeed, if women and men took leave equally often, the criticism would fail.

External links

  • Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
  • Full Text of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 - FMLA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 28
  • Senate roll call vote
  • House roll call vote
  • Nevada Dept. of Human Resources v. Hibbs
  • A Child's Wish at the Internet Movie Database (President Clinton appears briefly as himself.)
Search Term: "Family_and_Medical_Leave_Act_of_1993"